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Lesson4 – Reading Comprehension 4

MY ANSWER 

 

1. Read 4th reading comprehension text quickly and sign difficult words

Fertilizer is any substance that can be added to the soil to provide chemical elements essential for plant nutrition so that the yield can be increased. Natural substances such as animal droppings, ashes from wood fires, and straw have been used as fertilizers in fields for thousands of years, and lime has been used since Romans introduced it during the Empire. It was not until the nineteenth century, however, that chemical fertilizer became widely accepted as normal agricultural practice. Today, both natural and synthetic fertilizers are available in a variety of forms.

A complete fertilizer is usually6 marked with a formula consisting of three numbers, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which designate the percentage of content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the order stated. Synthetic fertilizers, produced by factories, are available in either solid or liquid form. Solids, in the shape of chemical granules, are in demand because they are not only easy to store but also easy to apply. Recently, liquids have shown as increase in popularity, accounting for 20 percent of the nitrogen fertilizer used throughout the world. Formerly, powders were also used, but they were found to be less convenient than either solids or liquids.

Fertilizers have no harmful effects on the soil, the crop, or the customer as long as they are used according to recommendations based on the result of local research. Occasionally, however, farmers may use more fertilizer than necessary, in which case the plants do not need, and therefore do not absorb, the total amount of fertilizer applied to the soil. The surplus of fertilizer thus can damage not only the crop but also the animals or human beings that eat the crop. Furthermore, fertilizer that is not used in the production of a healthy plant is leached into the water table. Accumulations of chemical fertilizer in the water supply accelerate the growth of algae and, consequently, may disturb the natural cycle of life, contributing to the death of fish. Too much fertilizer on grass can cause digestive disorders in cattle and in infants who drink cow’s milk. Fertilizer must be used with great attention to responsible use or it can harm the environment.

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning (at least 15 words)

  1. Fertilizer : Pupuk
  2. Essential : Hal yang di perlukan
  3. Ashes : Debu
  4. Empire : Kerajaan Inggris
  5. Widely : Luas
  6. Potash : Kalium karbonat {garam abu }
  7. synthetic : Buatan
  8. Either : Salah satu
  9. Occasionally : Kadang-kadang
  10. Necessary : Kebutuhan
  11. Therefore : Oleh karena itu
  12. Surplus : Kelebihan
  13. Consequently : Akibat
  14. Digestive : Sistem susunan pencernaan
  15. Environment :Lingkungan

3. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

 Paragraph One : Fertilizer is any substance that can be added to the soil to provide chemical elements essential for plant nutrition so that the yield can be increased.

 Paragraph Two : A complete fertilizer is usually6 marked with a formula consisting of three numbers, such as 4-8-2 or 6-6-4, which designate the percentage of content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash in the order stated. 

Paragraph three : Fertilizers have no harmful effects on the soil, the crop, or the customer as long as they are used according to recommendations based on the result of local research but Fertilizer must be used with great attention to responsible use or it can harm the environment.

4. Reread the text and answer questions given

  1. D. Content, form, and effects of fertilizer
  2. D. Required
  3. A. Nitrogen
  4. B. 5 percent
  5. B. Specify
  6. C. Liquids are increasing in popularity.
  7. D. Fertilizer
  8. A. Effective

5. Make a summary of the passage

=> very useful fertilizer for crops other than the fertilizer also has 2 types of fertilizers from plants or animal waste and synthetic fertilizers and Fertilizer must be used with great attention to responsible use or it can harm the environment.

FINISH

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Reading Comprehension 3

My Answer 

1. Read 3rd reading comprehension text quickly and sign difficult words

  Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles, along with breakthroughs in satellite technology and computer equipment, have overcome some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment for scientist’s research on the great oceans of the world. Without a vehicle, divers often became sluggish, and their mental concentration was severely limited. Because undersea pressure affects their speech organs, communication among divers has always been difficult or impossible. But today, most oceanographers avoid the use of vulnerable human divers, preferring to reduce the risk to human life and make direct observation by means of instruments that are lowered into the ocean, from samples taken from the water, or from photographs made by orbiting satellites. Direct observations of the ocean floor can be made not only by divers but also by deep-diving submarines in the water and even by the technology of sophisticated aerial photography from vantage points above the surface of the water. Some submarines can dive to depths of more than seven miles and cruise at depths of fifteen thousand feet. In addition, radio equippe budoys can be operated by remote control in order to transmit information back to land-based laboratories via satellite. Particularly important for ocean study are data about water temperature, currents, and weather. Satellite photographs can show the distribution of sea ice, oil slicks, and cloud formations over the ocean. Maps created from satellite pictures can represent the temperature and color of the ocean’s surface, enabling researchers to study the ocean currents from laboratories on dry land. Furthermore, computers help oceanographers to collect, organize, and analyze data from submarines and satellite. By creating a model of the ocean’s movement and characteristics, scientists can predict the patterns and possible effects of the ocean on the environment.

Recently, many oceanographers have been relying more on satellites and computers than on research ships or even submarine vehicles because they can supply a greater range of information more quickly and more effectively. Some of humankind’s most serious problems, especially those concerning energy and food, may be solved with the help of observations made possible by this new technology.

(red is diffuclt word)

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning (at least 15 words)

1.Manned : mengawaki

2.Unmanned : Tak berawak

3.Divers : Penyelam

4.Oceanographers : Ilmu samudera

5. vulnerable : Rentan

6.Deep-diving : Meyelam dalam-dalam

7.Sophisticated: Canggih

8.Equippe : Memperlengkapi

9.Particulary : Khususnya

10.Represent : Mewakili

11.Reyling : mempercayakan

12.Humankind :Kemanusiaan

13.Submarines :Kapal selam

14.Enabling : memungkinkan

15.Concering : Mengenai

3. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

1. paragraph 1 (one) : Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles, along with breakthroughs in satellite technology and computer equipment, have overcome some of the limitations of divers and diving equipment for scientist’s research on the great oceans of the world.

2. paragraph 2(two) : many oceanographers have been relying more on satellites and computers than on research ships or even submarine vehicles because they can supply a greater range of information more quickly and more effectively and especially those concerning energy and food, may be solved with the help of observations made possible by this new technology.

4. Reread the text and answer questions given

1. A. Technological advances in oceanography

2. C. Slow moving

3. A. The pressure affected their speech organs

4. A. Vehicles as well as divers

5. D. Make direct observations of the ocean floor

6. C. Stay in communication

7. D. By operators outside the vehicle on a laboratory on shore

8. C. A model of the ocean’s movements

5. Make a summary of the passage

Recent technological advances in manned and unmanned undersea vehicles, along with breakthroughs in satellite technology and computer equipment, and Some of humankind’s most serious problems, especially those concerning energy and food, may be solved with the help of observations made possible by this new technology.

 

Finish

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Lesson2 Reading Comprehension 2 – Sarah pratiwi

 MY ANSWER

 

1. Read text quickly and sign difficult words

According to the controversial sunspot theory, great storms or eruptions on the surface of the sun hurl streams of solar particles into space and eventually into the atmosphere of our planet, causing shifts in the weather on the Earth and interference with radio and television communications.

A typical sunspot consists of a dark central umbra, a word derived from the Latin word for shadow, which is surrounded by a lighter penumbra of light and dark threads extending out from the center like the spokes of a wheel. Actually the sunspots are cooler than the rest of the photosphere, which may account for their apparently darker color. Typically, the temperature in a sunspot umbra is about 4000 K, whereas the temperature in a penumbra registers 5500 K, and the granules outside in the spot are 6000 K.

Sunspots range in size from tiny granules to complex structures with areas stretching for billions of square miles. About 5 percent of all sunspots are large enough so that they can be seen from Earth without instruments; consequently, observations of sunspots have been recorded for thousands of years.

Sunspot has been observed in arrangements of one to more than one hundred spots, but they tend to occur in pairs. There is also a marked tendency for the two spots of a pair to have opposite magnetic polarities. Furthermore, the strength of the magnetic field associated with any given sunspot is closely related to the spot’s size. Sunspots have also been observed to occur in cycles, over a period of eleven years. After the beginning of a cycle, the storms occur between 20 and 40 degrees north and south of the equator on the sun. as the cycle continues, some of the storms move closer to the equator. As the cycle diminishes, the number of sunspots decreases to a minimum and they cluster between 5 and 15 degrees north and south latitude.

Although there is no theory that completely explains the nature and function of sunspot, several models show scientist’ attempts to relate the phenomenon to magnetic field lines along the lines of longitude from the north and south poles of the sun.

 

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning.

1.sunspot= bintik pada matahari
2.granules=butiran
3.tendency=kecenderungan
4.Furthermore= selanjutnya / lagi pula
5.phenomenon=perwujudan

3. Read the text again and write the ideas of each paragraph

paragraph 1: Told of the theory

paragraph 2: Describes the sunspot umbra

paragraph 3: about the different grain size small

paragraph 4: about sunspot observations

paragraph 5:scientist attempts to relate the phenomenon to magnetic field lines along the lines of longitude from the north and south poles of the sun.

4. Reread the text and answer questions given

ANSWER:

1. B

2. B. Open to debate

3. B. Disturbances of wind

4. D.Small pieces of matter from the sun

5. A. Very small

6.C. The color of sunspots could be affected by their temperatur

7.B. Spots

8. A .As a result

9. B. In a configuration of two spots

10.B. Sunspots may be related to magnetic fields that follow longitudinal lines on the sun.

11.C. Subject to disagreement

5. Make a summary of the passage

Resecrh and observations of sunspot, scientist attempts to relate the phenomenon to magnetic field lines along the lines of longitude from the north and south poles of the sun.

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Lesson1″ Reading Comprehension 1″ – sarah pratiwi

My Answer

1. Read text quickly and sign difficult words

Although stage plays has been set to music since the era of the ancient Greeks, when the dramas of Sophocies and Aeschylus were accompanied by lyres and flutes, the usual accepted date for the beginning of opera as we know it is 1600. As a part of the celebration of the marriage of King Henry IV of France to the Italian aristocrat Maria De Medici, the Florentine composer Jacopo Peri produced his famous Euridice, generally considered to be the first opera. Following his example, a group of Italian musicians, poets, and noblemen called the Camerata began to revive the style of musical story that had been used in Greek tragedy. The Camerata took most of the plots for their operas from Greek and Roman history and mythology, beginning the process of creating an opera by writing a libretto or drama that could be used to establish the framework to the music. They called their compositions opera in musical or musical works. It is from this phrase that the word “opera” was borrowed and abbreviated.

For several years, the center of opera was Florence in Northern Italy, but gradually, during the Baroque period, it spread throughout Italy. By the late 1600s, operas were being written and performed in many places throughout Europe, especially in England, France, and Germany. However, for many years, the Italian opera was considered the ideal, and many non-Italian composers continued to use Italian librettos. The European form deemphasized the dramatic aspect of the Italian model. New orchestral effects and even ballet were introduced under the guise of opera. Composers gave in to the demands of singers, writing many operas that were little more than a succession of brilliant tricks for the voice, designed to showcase the splendid voices of the singer who had requested them. It was thus that complicated arias, recitative, and duets evolved. The aria, which is a long solo, may be compared to a song in which the characters express their thoughts and feelings. The recitative, which is also a solo of sorts, is a recitation set to music, the purpose of which is to continue the story line. The duet is a musical piece written for two voices, a musical device than may serve the function of either an aria or a recitative within the opera. (Nb: Red is difficult words )

2. Make a list of new vocabulary with their meaning
1. greeks =orang Yunani
2. aristocrat =bangsawan
3. poets = penyair
4. noblemen =bangsawan
5. abbreviated =disingkat
6. throughout =seluruh
7. deemphasized =memakai perlombaan
8. demands = tuntutan
9. recitative =recitative
10. evolved = berevolusi

3. Gist ideas of each paragraph

A. Paragraf One : Tells about the early history of opera.

B. Paragraf Two :Tells about the spread and development of the opera

4. Answer questions given

ANSWER:

1. C. The development of opera

2. A.  In the time of the ancient Greeks

3. A. Opera

4. C. The opera Maria de Medici

5. D. For the wedding of King Henry IV

6. B.  Musicians who developed a new musical drama based upon Greek drama

7. C. Modify

8. C. Stories

9 .A. Greek and Roman history and mythology

5. Make a summary of the passage

“Opera has a fascinating history, combining the art of theater and singing and the accompanying music to be a wonderful show. opera experience growth from year to year and is well known in many Countries”

 

Finish ~

 

 

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Introducing Myself

My CV

Name : Sarah Pratiwii

Address : Poris Indah , Tanjung II street ,Cipondoh Indah

Phone Number : 083870506547

Place & Date of Birth : Tangerang , 25 Agustus 1996

Gender : Female

Marital Status : Single

Religion : Christian

Nationality : Indonesia