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Structure and Written Expressions 9

Problem 68 Much and Many : many noun (count–plural There are m

Problem 68 Much and Many :

many noun (count–plural)
There are many television programs for children on Saturday
much noun (noncount)
We don’t have much information

Incorrect: How much years have you been living in Texas?
Correct : How many years have you been living in Texas?

Incorrect: He always has much problems with his teeth.
Correct : He always has many problems with his teeth.

Incorrect: I think that there is too many violence on TV.
Correct : I think that there is too much violence on TV.

Problem 69 A Little and Little :

A Few and Few
a little
little noun (noncount)
We have a little time
We have little time
a few
few noun (count–plural)
We made a few mistakes
We made few mistakes

Incorrect: There are few tickets left for the concert.
Correct : There are a few tickets left for the concert.
(some)

Incorrect: A few people in my apartment building are friendly.
Correct : few people in my apartment building are friendly.(not many)

Problem 70 Only a Few and Only a Little :

only a few noun (count–plural)
Only a few dollars have been budgeted for supplies
Only a little noun (noncount)
We have only a little homework for Monday

Incorrect: We will need only a few food for the picnic.
Correct : We will need only a little food for the picnic.

Incorrect: Only few people were at the reception
Correct : only a few people were at the reception.

Problem 71 : A Large (Small) Number of and a large (Small) Amount of large :

A number of
small noun (count–plural)
A large number of students from other countries attend State University large
A amount of
small noun (noncount)
A small amount of rain is expected tomorrow

Incorrect: The lab has a large number of equipment.
Correct : The lab has a large amount of equipment.

Problem 72 Almost All of the and Most of the :

almost all (of the)
most all (of the) noun (count–plural) verb (plural)
Almost all (of the) trees in our yard are oaks
Most (of the) trees are oaks
almost all (of the)
most all (of the) noun (noncount) verb (singular)
Almost all (of the) art by R. C. Gorman is expensive
Most (of the) art by R. C. Gorman is expensive

incorrect: Most of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
Correct : almost all of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
or
Almost all teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
or
Most of the teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.
or
Most teachers at State University care about their students’ progress.

Problem 73 Sufficiency – Enough with Nouns :

noun (count–plural)
noun (noncount)
We have enough tickets
We have enough time
noun (count–plural)
noun (noncount)
We have tickets enough
We have time enough
or
There aren’t carsenough for all of us to go.

Incorrect: Do we have hamburgers enough as for the party?
Correct : Do we have enough hamburgers for the party?
or
Do we have hamburgers enough for the party?

Incorrect: Virginia doesn’t have the enough information to make a decision.
Correct : Virginia doesn’t have enough information to make a decision.
or
Virginia doesn’t have information enough to make a decision.

Incorrect: I need to buy a lamp because I don’t have enough the light in my room.
Correct : I need to buy a lamp because I don’t have enough light in my room.
or
I need to buy a lamp because I don’t have light enough in my room.

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Reading Comprehension 13

My Answer

New Vocabulary :

commonplace : biasa
interconnected : saling berhubungan
revealed : mengungkapkan
awareness : kesadaran
inventive : berdaya cipta
congenially : cocok
cooperatively : kerjasama
incessantly : terus menerus
encouragement : dorongan
glider : pesawat peluncur
gilders : menyepuh
slightly : sedikit
maneuvering : mengatur siasat
efforts : usaha
guiding : membimbing
advantages : keuntungan
precisely : tepat
manned : diawaki
proportion : ukuran
combustion : pembakaran

The Ideas Of Each Paragraph :

Paragraph 1 : Reason for the success of the Wright brothers
Paragraph 2 : Distunguishing the Wright brothers from other engineers
Paragraph 3 : Progress of research Wright brothers
Paragraph 4 : Risks of research Wright brothers

Answer The Question :

1. A. The reasons why the Wright brothers succeeded in manned flight.
2. B. Mentioned
3. C. Constantly
4. B. They were gilder pilots.
5. C. Because they were important in the refinement of the wings for their airplane
6. C. Engine
7. A. Destined to fail
8. D. They did not have enough power to lift their own weight.
9. D. They were well funded.

Summary

In spite of these advantages, however, the Wright brothers might not have succeeded had they not been born at precisely the opportune moment in history.

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Reading Comprehension 14

My Answer

 

New Vocabulary (20 words)

1. independent : independen
2. overseeing : mengawasi
3. commonly : biasanya
4. council : dewan
5. regarding : mengenai
6. funds : membiayai
7. loans : pinjaman
8. senate : dewan
9. primarily : terutama
10. monetary : moneter
11. influencing : mempengaruhi
12. provides : memberikan
13. recession : resesi/pengunduran
14. augmented : ditambah
15. fueling : bahan bakar
16. inflation : inflasi/pemompaan
17. supervises : mengawasi
18. stray : nyasar
19. established : tetapkan
20. frequent : sering

 

The ideal of each Paragraph

Paragraph 1 : The origin of the Federal Reserve System

Paragraph 2 : Function of the Federal Reserve System

Paragraph 3 : The task of the Fed

Paragraph 4 : Explanation of the Federal Reserve

Answer

1. B. The Federal Reserve System
2. A. Supervising
3. D. Approved
4. B. To regulate monetary policies
5. B. Bonds
6. C. Interest rates go up
7. B. Too much money in the economy
8. C. The FED tends to follow the policies of the executive branch of the government
9. D. The Federal Reserve receives its yearly budget from Congress

Summary

It has been said that the Federal Reserve is actually a fourth branch of the United States government because it is  of national policy makers.

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Reading Comprehension 12

My Answer 

New Vocabulary (20 words)

1. predecessor : pendahulu
2. fundamental : mendasar
3. premise : alasan/pendapat
4. dogma : kepercayaan
5. merit : pantas
6. monk : biarawan
7. treatises : risalah/acuan
8. imperfection : ketidaksempurnaan
9. asserted : menyatakan
10. elusive : terabaikan/sukar dipahami
11.artisans : ahli
12. accustomed : membiasakan
13. cryptic : samar
14. attracted : menarik
15. struggle : berjuang
16. distinct : berbeda
17. labored : bekerja
18. earnestly : sungguh-sungguh
19. devoted : mengabdikan
20. literary : berkaitan

The idea of each paragraph

paragraph 1 : alchemy was, in many ways, the predecessor of the modern science of chemistry.

paragraph 2 : gold was the perfect metal and that inferior metals such as lead and mercury were removed by various degrees of imperfection from gold

paragraph 3 :alchemy had developed two distinct groups of practitioners-the laboratory alchemist and the literary alchemist.

paragraph 4 : alchemical experiments over many centuries.

 

Answer

1.D. Alchemy was the predecessor of modern chemistry
2.B. Genuine
3.A. Perfection
4.B. An element that was never found
5.B. Secret
6.A. To keep the work secret
7.C. Artisans
8.B. The Literary alchemists recorded it in writing
9.B. Some very important scientific discoveries were made by alchemists

 

Summary

They continued to call themselves alchemists, but they were becoming true chemists.

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Reading Comprehension 11

My Answer 

New Vocabulary (20 words)

1. principles : prinsip/dasar
2. promulgation : pengumuman
3. rejects : menolak
4. outright : sekaligus
5. imposed : memaksakan
6. ultimately : akhirnya
7. inseparably : tidak dapat dipisahkan
8. utilization : pemakaian
9. functionalism : berfungsi
10. excluding : tidak termasuk
11. sculptor : pemahat
12. innate : bawaan
13. spontaneous : secara spontan
14. palette : palet/lukis
15. terrain : tanah lapang
16. permeate : menembus
17. providing : menyediakan
18. separate : memisahkan/terpisah
19. Moreover : selain itu
20. sparse : jarang

The Idea Of Each Paragraph

Paragraph 1 : The explanation of organic architecture
paragraph 2 : The explanation of natural principles
Paragraph 3 : Differences of organic architecture

Answer

1. A. Natural architecture
2. B. Eventually
3. C. Promoted
4. A. a bank that is built to look like a Greek Temple
5. B. To give an example of natural principles
6. A. Difficult to see
7. D. Form and function are one
8. C. Nature should be respected

Summary

The organic architect views the site and materials as an innate form that develops organically from within.

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Reading Comprehension 10

My Answer

New Vocabulary (20 words)

1. Acacia : akasia
2. shrubs : semak belukar
3. mimosa : pohon berbunga kuning
4. wattle : anyaman dahan kayu
5. daub : melumurkan
6. legumes : kacang polongp
7. edible : dapat dimakan
8. spreading : menyebar
9. fragrant : harum
10. Foliage  : dedaunan
11.unobtrusive : mencolok
12.commonly : biasanya
13.dense : tebal
14.bark : kulit pohon
15.tannin : samak
16.acidic : keasaman
17.proven : membuktikan / terbukti
18.arid : kering/gersang 
19.thrive : tumbuh subur
20.blossom : bunga

Answer

1. B. Characteristic and varieties of the acacia
2. C. Twelve
3. A. Grow well
4. B. Varieties
5. C. Is taller than the Bailey Acacia
6. A. Smooth
7. C. Huge
8. D. Black Acacia
9. B. A table
10.C. August

The Idea Of Each Paragraph 

Paragraph 1 : The Origin of Acacia trees
Paragraph 2 : The information about species of Acacia
Paragraph 3 : Season blossom of acacia tree

Summary

 The Acacia, a genus of trees and shrubs of the mimosa family that originated in Australia, and Nearly five hundred species of Acacia have been analyzed, identified, categorized, and proven capable of survival in hot and generally arid parts of the world.

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Reading Comprehension 9

My answer

Difficult Words (red)

Precipitation, commonly referred to as rainfall, is a measure of the quality of atmospheric water in the form of rain, hail, snow that reaches the ground. The average annual precipitation over the whole of the United States is thirty-six inches per year. It should be understood, however, that all precipitation is not measured equally. For example, a foot of snow does not equal a foot of precipitation.According to the general formula for computing the precipitation of snowfall, ten inches of snow equals one inch of precipitation. In upper New York State, for example, where there is typically a large amount of snowfall every winter, a hundred inches of snow in one year would be recorded as only ten inches of precipitation. On the other hand, rain is rain. Forty inches of rain would be recorded as forty inches of precipitation. The total annual precipitation for an area with forty inches of rain and one hundred inches of snow would be recorded as fifty inches of precipitation.

The amount of precipitation that an area receives is a combined result of several factors, including location, altitude, proximity to the sea, and the direction of prevailing winds. Most of the precipitation in the United States is brought originally by prevailing winds from the Pacific Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Oceana d the Great Lakes. Because these prevailing winds generally come from the west, the Pacific Coast receives more annual precipitation than the Atlantic Cast. Along the Pacific Coast itself, however, altitude causes some diversity in rainfall. The mountain ranges of the United States, especially the Rocky Mountain Range and the Appalachian Mountain Range, influence the amount of precipitation in the areas to the windward and leeward sides of these ranges. East of the Rocky Mountains, the annual precipitation is substantially less than that west of the Rocky Mountains. The precipitation north of the Appalachian Mountains averages 40 percent less than that south of the Appalachian Mountains. As air currents from the ocean move over land, the air must rise to pass over the mountains. The air cools, and the water that is held in the clouds falls as rain or snow on the ascending side of the mountains. The air, therefore, is much drier on the other side of the mountains.

New Vocabulary (20 words)

1. Rainfall : hujan

2. Snow : salju

3. Precipitation : Curah hujan

4. According : Menurut

5. Computing : menghitung

6. Recorded : dicatat

7. Receives : menerima

8. Combined : gabungan

9. Altitude : Ketinggian

10. Brought : dibawa

11. Prevailing : yang berlaku

12. Generally : umumnya

13. Influence : mempengaruhi

14. Move : Bergerak

15. Ocean : Laut

16. Over land : atas tanah

17. Rise : Bangkit

18. The Mountains : Pegunungan

19. Held : diadakan

20. Asceding : Menaik

 

The main idea of each paragraph!

1. Describes the annual rainfall in every inch that exist throughout the United States such as hail (snow).

2. Describes a combination of several factors that affect the amount of rainfall in each area / location in the United States.

 

Answer

1. A. Precipitation

2. C. Rainfall

3. B. Rain, hail, and snow

4. A. Thirty-six inches

5. B. By four Inches

6. C. Nearness to

7. D. The Pacific Coast

8. C. The sea

9. A. Fundamentally

10. D. Mountain ranges

 

Summary

Precipitation is any type of water that forms in the Earth’s atmosphere and then drops onto the surface of the Earth. Water vapor, droplets of water suspended in the air, builds up in the Earth’s atmosphere. Water vapor in the atmosphere is visible as clouds and fog. Water vapor collects with other materials, such as dust, in clouds. Precipitation condenses, or forms, around these tiny pieces of material, called cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Clouds eventually get too full of water vapor, and the precipitation turns into a liquid (rain) or a solid (snow).

 

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Reading Comprehension 8

My answer

Difficult Word ( Red )

The protozoans, minute aquatic creature, each of which consists of a single cell of protoplasm, constitute a classification of the most primitive forms of animal life. The very name protozoan indicates the scientific understanding of the animals. Proto- means first or primitive, and zoarefers to animals. They are fantastically diverse, but three major groups may be identified on the basis of their motility. The Mastigophora have one or more long tail that they use to propel themselves forward. The Ciliata which use the same basic means for locomotion as the Mastigophora, have a larger number of short tails. The Sarcodina, which include amoebae, float and row themselves about on their crusted bodies.

In addition to their form of movement, several other features discriminate among the three groups of protozoans. For example, at least two nuclei per cell have been identified in the Ciliata, usually a large nucleus that regulates growth but decomposes during reproduction, and a smaller one that contains the genetic code necessary to generate the large nucleus.

Chlorophyl, which is the green substance encountered in plants, is found in the bodies of some protozoans, enabling them to make some of their own food from water and carbon dioxide. Protozoans are not considered plants but animals, because unlike pigmented plants to which some protozoans are otherwise almost identical, they do not live on simple organic compounds. Their cell demonstrates all of the major characteristics of the cells of higher animals, such as eating, breathing, and reproducing.

Many species of protozoans collect into colonies, physically connected to one another are responding uniformly to outside stimulate. Current research into this phenomenon along with investigations carried out with advanced microscopes may necessitate a redefinition of what constitutes protozoans, even calling into question the basic premise that they have only one cell. Nevertheless, with the current data available, almost 40,000 species of protozoans have been identified. No doubt, as technology improves methods of observation, better models of classification of these simple single cells will be proposed.

New Vocabulary (20 words)

1.Creature : Makhluk

2. Consists : terdiri

3. Motility : motilitas

4. Tail : ekor

5. Propel : mendorong

6. Include : memasukkan

7. Float : mengapung

8. Row : baris

9. Addition : Tambahan

10. Features : Fitur

11. Discriminate : Membedakan

12. At least : Setidaknya

13. Demonstrates : menunjukkan

14. higher : yang lebih tinggi

15. collect : mengumpulkan

16. Responding : menanggapi

17. stimulate : merangsang

18. phenomenon : fenomena

19. advanced : canggih

20. cells : sel-sel

The ideas of each paragraph

Paragraph 1 : Definition of protozoa and their spesification

Paragraph 2 : Protozoa is a kind of animals not plant

Paragraph 3 :Many species of protozoans collect into colonies, almost 40,000 species of protozoans have been identified

Answer

1. D. Characteristic of protozoa

2. D. Very small

3. B. The substance that forms the cell of a protozoan

4.C. The manner of movement is critical when classifying the three major groups of protozoan.

5. C. Sarcodina

6. C. It regulates growth.

7. A. They do not live on simple organic compounds.

8. A. Protozoans

9. C. They have a large cell and a smaller cell.

Summary

Protozoa are the oldest known group of heterotrophic life that consume and transform complex food particles into energy. Although protozoans are only made up of a single cell, these organisms manage to perform all the basic tasks of life. The protozoa are divided into four major groups: the ciliates, the flagellates, the heliozoans, and the amoebas.

 

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Structure and Written Expressions 8

Problem 63

Painters of the early twentieth century who were known primarily for they colorful landscapes, the Group of Seven changed is name to the Canadian Group of Painters in 1993.

*KEY : They is incorrect, the correct is their

The gray scale, a progressive series of shades ranging from black to white, is used in computer graphics —- detail to graphical images.
(A) added
(B) to add
(C) are added
(D) and add

*KEY : B (to add)

Problem 64

The cork oak tree has a laryer of cork several inches thickness that can be stripped every ten years.

*KEY : Thickness is incorrect, the correct is thick

…. skeleton of an insect is on the outside of its body.
(A) Its
(B) That the
(C) There is a
(D) The

*KEY : D (the)

Problem 65

For a seagoing, cargo-carrying sailing vessels, the clipper ship was remarkably fast.

*KEY : Vessels is incorrect, the correct is vessel

By —- excluding competition from an industry, governments have often created public service monopolies.
(A) they adopt laws
(B) laws are adopted
(C) adopting laws
(D) having laws adopt

*KEY : C (adopting laws)

Problem 66

Diamond is the hardest known substance, so diamonds can be cut only by another.

*KEY : Another is incorrect, the correct is other

Cholesterol is present in large quantities in the nervous system, where —- compound of myelin.
(A) it a
(B) a
(C) being a
(D) it is a

*KEY : D (it is a) 

Problem 67

Alaska became the forty-ninth state in 1959, and Hawaii became the fiftieth state lately that year.

*KEY : Lately is incorrect, the correct is later

To break thick ice, an icebreaker boat moves fast enough to ride up on the ice, —- under its weight.
(A) so then breaks
(B) when breaks it
(C) which then breaks
(D) for which then breaks

*KEY : C (which then breaks)